Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology
About the profession
Pharmacology, clinical pharmacology - a field of science that studies the interaction of drugs with living systems through chemical mechanisms, by binding to regulatory molecules, by activating or inhibiting physiological or pathological processes in the body. The main directions of experimental pharmacology are the search and development of new effective drugs for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, for the regulation of the functional state of organs and systems of the body, the study of pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and metabolism of drugs, their interaction, the study of mechanisms of action and manifestations of undesirable side effects, and also an experimental (preclinical) study of the drug safety and efficacy. The main scientific objectives of clinical pharmacology include the study of the effectiveness and safety of drugs in a healthy and ill person, the drug monitoring, the optimization of pharmacotherapy for various diseases, the study of pharmacogenetics and pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and metabolism, as well as the drug interaction and adverse drug reactions in the clinical practice.
The program is aimed at the training of highly qualified scientific and academic staff, who can conduct research in the experimental field of Pharmacology and in practical field of Clinical Pharmacology and in related fields of medical science. Work program is realized during 3 years of education. The program includes lectures, practical classes on the base of the department capacities (including hospital) and research organizations. Postgraduate students fulfill research work under the guidance of professors, doctors of science, heads of medical organizations. There is a monthly check of the results of research work on the cathedral meetings and discussion on the made reports. Close control of the work schedule is performed by department in order to make in-time scientific degree obtaining by postgraduates.
Educational process is organized in tight connection with the clinical medicine demands. Research works are fulfilled under the real clinical practice. The practical part of the working program on Pharmacology, Clinical pharmacology is aimed on formation of all needed competences, involving general (universal), general professional and professional. The main task of postgraduate’s practice is training of an excellent specialist in experimental and clinical research areas is able to perform high quality independent work. There are two main educational blocks in the field of practice: “Pharmacology, clinical pharmacology” and "Teaching methodology" (consolidation of knowledge, skills and abilities of methodological development and analysis of the basic forms of training sessions and extracurricular activities, explaining, testing and control of knowledge, organizing the educational work with students).
Scientific degree on Pharmacology, clinical pharmacology is a driver of person’s career in the field of practical and experimental medicine with a various specializations including work in scientific research institutions, universities, pharmacologic companies, hosptals (clinical pharmacologist, physician, etc).
Obtained competences will include next:
- The search for new biologically active pharmacological substances among natural and first synthesized compounds, products of biotechnology, genetic engineering and other modern technologies in experimental models of pathological conditions.
- The study of the mechanisms of action of pharmacological substances in experiments on animals, on isolated organs and tissues, as well as on cell cultures.
- The study of interactions between the body and drugs, the study of their pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and metabolism. Establishing relationships between doses, concentrations and efficacy of drugs. Extrapolation of pharmacological parameters from biological models to humans.
- An experimental (preclinical) study of the safety of pharmacological substances - toxicological studies, including the study of the toxicity of potential drugs and their finished dosage forms in acute and chronic animal experiments, as well as the assessment of possible specific types of toxicity and the manifestation of undesirable side effects (mutagenicity, embryotoxicity , teratogenicity, effect on reproductive function, allergenic effect, immunotoxicity and carcinogenicity).
- A study of the pharmacodynamics of drugs in the clinic.
- A study of the pharmacokinetics of drugs in healthy volunteers and patients.
- The study of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of drugs, the development of the most rational combinations for modern pharmacotherapy.
- The study of bioequivalence of drugs in healthy volunteers and patients.
- Development of a methodology and therapeutic drug monitoring of drugs.
- The study of the clinical efficacy of drugs in patients with various diseases in open, double-blind, randomized, comparative and placebo-controlled studies.
- Conducting meta-analysis and systematic analysis.
- Development of mathematical modeling methods for choosing the dosage of drugs for their primary and course prescription.
- The study of adverse drug reactions, the development of methods for their prevention and correction.
- The study of the effect of drugs on the quality of life of patients and healthy volunteers.
- The retrospective and prospective pharmacoepidemiological studies.
- Pharmacoeconomic studies of the cost of various therapeutic and prophylactic regimens for prescribing drugs.
- Development and optimization of methods of pharmacotherapy and disease prevention in various groups of patients (personalized medicine).
- Clinical trials of drugs.
- Development of a formulary system of drugs.