Oil and Gas Engineering
Technology development of subsea fields at deep water
The experience of developing the oil and gas resources of the shelves of the seas and oceans, despite large capital investments, has shown that the extraction of hydrocarbons from subsea fields provides significant benefits. Profits from the sale of oil and gas produced on the shelf, cover the cost 4 times. The costs of exploration in the waters range from 10 to 20% of the total costs of developing subsea fields. The total capital investment in the development of subsea oil and gas fields depends on the climatic conditions, the depth and remoteness of the field from onshore service bases, recoverable reserves of the field, well flow rates, automation of the entire drilling process, development of offshore fields, production, field gathering, treatment and transportation of oil and gas in marine conditions. The main purpose of this direction is to substantiate the technical and technological parameters and characteristics of the development of subsea fields, taking into account the provision of industrial and environmental safety of field development. This is achieved on the basis of substantiating the choice of types of structures and equipment for exploration and maintenance, determining the type of basic design and the main technical characteristics of a stationary platform for developing offshore oil and gas fields, analyzing options and selecting optimal technological schemes for developing and arranging deposits including the drilling of wells for various purposes and the substantiation of transport systems.
Technologies for the sea transportation of compressed and liquefied natural gas
About a quarter of the world's proven natural gas reserves are located in shelf fields, which are unprofitable because they are small or too far from the coast. The implementation of associated gas from shelf oil fields is in most cases impossible due to the lack of the necessary infrastructure, so it is either burned or pumped back to maintain reservoir pressure. The solution to this problem is possible with the use of technologies for the sea transportation of compressed natural gas. Sea transportation of compressed natural gas is an alternative to transporting liquefied natural gas (LNG) over a distance of 3,000 nautical miles. Gas is transported by ship under high pressure and at ambient temperature. The main advantages of transporting compressed natural gas before LNG transportation is that it does not need to require the building of expensive gas liquefaction plants (about $ 1.5 billion), storage facilities and regasification plants ($ 500 million). The transport itself is a storage facility (about $ 250 million), and gas is pumped through a compressor station ($ 150-350 million), which can be installed both onshore and on the vessel itself. The main objective of this direction is a feasibility study on the application of technologies for the offshore natural gas transportation of medium and small offshore gas fields. The goal can be achieved on the basis of: justification of multivariate schemes for the extraction and sea transportation of natural gas using economic and mathematical models; development of methods for choosing the optimal location for the construction of the plant and the export terminal; risk assessment of adopted schemes for the extraction and sea transportation of natural gas.
Technologies for space monitoring of territories and waters of hydrocarbon deposits to ensure industrial and environmental safety during their development
Space data is used in conjunction with GLONASS / GPS observations to monitor the implementation of major oil and gas production and transport projects, detect hazardous phenomena in the areas of responsibility of oil and gas companies, assess the consequences of accidents and natural disasters, and monitor the progress of work to eliminate them. The movements of the earth's surface, including those associated with faults, geocryological and other exogenous processes, pose a real threat to the safe functioning of buildings and structures of oil and gas fields. When gas and oil are taken from the subsoil, a drop in reservoir pressure occurs in the reservoirs, leading to displacements of the earth's surface. Such displacements can reach significant magnitudes (Belridge California field) and lead to the destruction of wells, gas pipelines, etc. Space monitoring also finds an equally important application in solving environmental problems. Thus, the objective of this direction is the development of technologies for assessing the current state of objects of production, processing and transportation based on space information to prevent accidents in the territories and waters of oil and gas fields during their development. The goal is achieved on the basis of problem-solving: the development of methods for geoinformation modeling of oil-and-gas bearing territories and waters; analysis and visualization of spatial data and related information on natural, technical and man-made objects; classification of oil and gas fields according to the degree of natural and technical danger; development of methods for predicting hazardous processes and phenomena during the development of oil and gas fields, as well as the prevention of emergency situations to eliminate hydrocarbon losses and damage to oil and gas companies.