Anatoly Skalny
Doctor of Medicine
Professor, Head of the Department of Medical Elementology of the Institute of Medicine RUDN University,

System diagnostics and personalized correction of mineral metabolism disorders normalizes metabolism and prevents the development of diseases at the pre-disease stage.


Graduated from Ivano-Frankivsk Medical Institute, Medical Faculty, speciality “General Medicine (Therapy)” and “Pediatrics”.

1985 - 1989

Employee of the Department of Pediatric Neurology of the Serbsky Institute of Forensic and Psychiatric Examination.

1988 - present

Head of the Autonomous non-profit organization “Center for Biotic Medicine” (former - SMC “Element”).

1989 - 1991

Junior researcher of the State Scientific Center of Narcology (Moscow).


Candidate thesis on “Study of the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on the metabolism of zinc, copper and lithium in the body” was defended, speciality 14.00.45 - Narcology.

1999 - 2008

Junior researcher at Moscow Center for Research and Practice in Sports Medicine.


Doctoral thesis on “Ecological and physiological rationale of the effectiveness of the use of macro - and micronutrients in disorders of homeostasis in the examined from various climatic and geographical regions” was defended, specialties 14.00.17 - Normal Physiology and 14.00.51 - Regenerative Medicine.

2003 - present

Head of the Department of Nutrition and Bioelementology Orenburg State University, Director of the Institute of Bioelementology (Orenburg).


The academic title of Professor was awarded.

2008 - 2015

Chief researcher, Institute of Toxicology, Federal Biomedical Agency (FMBA) of Russia (Saint Petersburg).

2014 - present

Head of the laboratory of Biotechnology and Applied Bioelementology of the Yaroslavl Demidov State University (Yaroslavl).

2015 - 2018

Chief researcher of the Department of special research of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Moscow).

2016 - present

Vice-President of Trace Element Institute for UNESCO (Lyon, France).

2016 - present

Head of the Department of Medical Elementology of the Institute of Medicine RUDN University.


National V.I. Vernadsky environmental prize.

  • Chief editor of the journals ”Trace elements in medicine” and “Trace elements and electrolytes”, member of the editorial boards of the journals “Trace elements in medicine and biology”, “Biological trace element research”, “Issues of biological, medical and pharmaceutical chemistry”, “Vestnik of Saint Petersburg I. I. Mechnikov State Medical Academy”, “Bulletin of restorative medicine”.
  • Chairman of the Russian society of medical Elementology (ROSMAM); Board member of the Federation of European Societies on Trace Elements and Minerals, FESTEM; member of the problem Commission “Fundamentals of biochemistry, physiology and nutrition hygiene” of the interdepartmental scientific Council for medical problems of nutrition of the Federal research center of nutrition, food biotechnology and food safety (Institute “Federal Research Center of food and biotechnology”, former Scientific Research Institute of Nutrition RAMS); member of the problem Commission of RAS “Biotechnology”; honorary member of the Finnish society of biological medicine and the Romanian society of medical Elementology; full member of National Ecological Sciences Academy (NESA) of India and the Russian Academy of medical and technical Sciences, member of the Advisory Committee of the Institute of global health at Jiaotong University (Xi’an, China).


Gives lectures to students of the Institute of Medicine RUDN University, specialties “General Medicine” and “Dental Medicine” in the discipline

  • “Medical Elementology”

The author of the following course-books and study guides:

  1. Radysh I. V., Skalny A.V. Introduction to medical Elementology: study guide / I. V. Radysh, A.V. Skalny. - Moscow. RUDN, 2015. - 200 p.
    This study guide systematized information about the chemical properties of macro-and microelements, their biological and physiological role, interactions with various substances, describes the main causes of deficiency and excess of macro - and microelements. Methods of prevention and correction of metabolic disorders are considered.
  • Eremin S. A., Eremin S. K., Kaletin G. I., Kaletina N. I., Kovalenko A. E., Simonov E. A., Skalny A. V., Khabriev R. U. Toxicological chemistry. Analytical toxicology: course-book / edited by R. U. Khabriev, N. I. Kaletina. - Moscow: GEOTAR - Media, 2010. - 752 p.
    Different methods of sample preparation of biological samples and methods to determine toxicants (GC-MS, HPLC C-NMR, С-ICP - MS, GC-IR-Fourier, GRS, CE-ICP-M С, etc.) for solving problems of forensic chemistry, clinical toxicology, forensic analysis, doping and drug control were presented, mechanisms of action of toxicants, the patterns of their metabolism given toxico-genetics factors, the latest technology - metabolomics and metabonomics, biosafety issues, as well as ways of ensuring quality of examination results on the basis of good laboratory practice, system validation and qualification in the chemical-toxicological laboratories were studied.


  • A new integrative direction of Life Sciences - Bioelementology, as well as its section - Medical Elementology was created;
  • New fundamental knowledge on the biological role of zinc, copper, selenium, manganese was obtained;
  • Methodology for assessing the elemental status of a person at the individual and population levels was developed, its relationship with demographic and health indicators was defined;
  • The database and atlas on the content of chemical elements in biological samples of residents of the Russian Federation (more than 400,000 cases) was created;
  • Methodology of personalized correction of violations of metabolism and detoxification of persons in hazardous occupations and the general population was developed;
  • The features of the influence of exogenous factors on the formation of early childhood pathology (autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy (cerebral palsy), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mental and speech retardation (PSRD) were studied.
  • Patents:
    • Glushchenko N. N., Kukhtina E. N., Olkhovskaya I. P., Semenov A. S., Skalny A.V. Method of modeling alcoholic coma. Patent SU, A1 1698903. Published 15.12.1991.
    • Skalny A. V., Ignatov S. A., Losev A. S. Method for the treatment of poly-elementosis in patients with clinical manifestations of zinc-deficient States. Patent RU 2053770 C1. Published 01.02.1996.
    • Skalny V. V., Skalny A.V. Method of treating patients with schizophrenia. Patent UA 17184 A. Published 18.03.1997
    • Tambiev A. H., Kirikova N. N., Mazo V. K., Skalny A.V.  Method for obtaining a selenium-containing preparation of spirulina biomass. Patent RU 2096037 C1. Published 20.11.1997.
    • Semikopenko V. A., Skalny A.V., Demidov V. A. Method for identifying the risk group of breast diseases in women / / Patent for the invention RU 2230491 C2. Published: 20.06.2004. Bull.  No. 17.
    • Miroshnikov S. A., Lebedev S. V., Miroshnikov A. M., Notova S. V., Miroshnikova E. P., Skalny A.V., Gerasimenko V. V., Kanavina O. N., Malyushin E. N., Rodionova G. B., Chadova L. A. Method of reducing the lead content in the body of chickens // Patent for invention No. 2270580. Published: 27.02.2006. Bull.  No. 6.
    • Notova S. V., Gerasimenko V. V., Tarakanov B. V., Nikulin V. N., Lukyanov A. F., Skalny A. V., Miroshnikov S. A., Lebedev S. V. Method of lowering cholesterol in the body // Russian Patent for invention No. 2271173. Published: 10.03.2006. Bull.  No. 7.
    • Tinkov A. A., Gatiatulina E. R., Polyakova V. S., Nemershina O. N., Nikonorov A. A., Skalny A. V. Treatment and prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease // Patent for the invention №2016126245/15(041091). Published: 08.02.2018. Bull.  No. 4.

Scientific interests

  • Evaluation of the linkage between the violation of the elemental status of the population and medical-demographic parameters of individual territories.
  • Development and introduction in scientific-practical activity of health new medical technologies assessment and correction of micronutrient status.
  • Impact assessment of the functional reserves and physiological functions of the human body drugs of macro - and microelements, sorbents, their therapeutic effects in various diseases.
  • Study of the health status of the population of individual territories using bio substrates as indicators of accumulation or deficiency of macro-and microelements.
  • Creation of biologically active additives (BAA), pharmaceuticals and food products enriched with micronutrients.
  • Study of the linkage of the elemental composition and mental illness (alcoholism, depression, schizophrenia).
  • Study of the pre-, peri- and postnatal effects of alcohol and toxic chemical elements, macro- and micronutrient deficiencies and imbalances on child development and morbidity.
  • Development of new physiological approaches to increase the level of functional reserves of special contingents and the athletes of higher qualification.
The objective of the present study was investigation of the selenium (Se) levels in environmental samples, main consumed food products, as well as human hair in the areas of the Orenburg region. Se levels in the environmental objects (water, soil, wheat), frequently consumed food products (wheat bread, ryebread, beef, pork, chicken, milk, cottage cheese), as well as human hair samples in the western (n=210), central (n=195), and eastern (n=120) areas were assessed using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry (soil). The obtained data demonstrate that water (87% and 89%), soil (41% and 48%), and wheat (11% and 11%) Se levels Central and Eastern areas were significantly higher than those in the Western area. The level of Se in foods was found to be the highest in the Eastern (wheat bread and beef), Central and Eastern (ryebread and pork), or Central (milk and cottage cheese) areas of the Orenburg region. Hair Se content (0.298 (0.233–0.591)μg/g) as well as dietary Se intake (84.3 (73.7–95.8)μg/day) did not differ significantly between the studied areas. At the same time, regression analysis demonstrated that Se intake with wheat bread (β=0.634; p=0.042) was the strongest predictor of hair Se. The revealed associations between environmental and food Se content and Se status of the population underline the necessity of continuous monitoring of Se intake and exposure in order to prevent potential health effects associated with both deficiency and overload.
Sex differences in brain physiology and by inference various pathologies are generally recognized, however frequently ignored in epidemiological and experimental studies, leading to numerous data gaps. As a consequence, the mechanisms underlying sexual dimorphism of neurological diseases remain largely unknown. Several cellular and molecular pathways linked to the etiology and pathogenesis of various brain disorders have been recently described as sex-specific. Here, we review the evidence for sex differences in brain redox homeostasis, which is an important factor in brain physiology and disease. First, we focus on sex-specific differences in the healthy brain regarding popular redox balance markers, including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, oxidative damage, and antioxidant status. We also review the modulatory effect of steroid sex hormones on these markers. Lastly, we approach the sex-specific changes in brain redox homeostasis in disease and discuss the possibility that differential redox response contributes to the sexual dimorphism of neurological disorders.
The objective of the present study was to review the mechanisms of organotin-induced adipogenesis, obesity, and associated metabolic disturbances. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) activation is considered as the key mechanism of organotin-induced adipogenesis. Particularly, organotin exposure results in increased adipogenesis both in cell and animal models. Moreover, transgenerational inheritance of organotin-induced obese phenotype was demonstrated in vivo. At the same time, the existing data demonstrate that organotin compounds (OTCs) induces aberrant expression of PPARγ-targeted genes, resulting in altered of adipokine, glucose transporter,proinflammatory cytokines levels, and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The latter is generally characterized by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Other mechanisms involved in organotin-induced obesity may include estrogen receptor and corticosteroid signaling, altered DNA methylation, and gut dysfunction. In addition to cellular effects, organotin exposure may also affect neural circuits of appetite regulation, being characterized by neuropeptide Y (NPY) up-regulation in parallel with of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), Agouti-related protein (AgRP), andcocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) down-regulation in the arcuate nucleus. These changes result in increased orexigenic and reducedanorexigenic signaling, leading to increased food intake. The existing data demonstrate that organotins are potent adipogenic agents, however, no epidemiologic studies have been performed to reveal the association between organotin exposure and obesity and the existing indirect human data are contradictory.
The objective of the present study was to assess the level of minerals and trace elements in 40 children with Down’s syndrome and 40 controls aged 1–2 years old. Hair mineral and trace element analysis was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data demonstrate that hair levels of Mg, P, I, Cr, Si, Zn, and Pb in Down’s syndrome patients exceeded the respective control values by 36, 36, 93, 57, 45, 28, and 54%, whereas hair mercury was more than twofold lower in children with Down’s syndrome. The observed difference in the levels of trace elements was age-dependent. In particular, in 1-year-olds, major differences were observed for essential elements (Cr, Si, Zn), whereas in 2-year-olds—for toxic elements (Hg, Pb). At the same time, hair P levels in Down’s syndrome patients were 14 and 35% higher at the age of 1 and 2 years in comparison to the respective controls. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that a model incorporating all elements, being characterized by a significant group difference, accounted for 42.5% of status variability. At the same time, only hair phosphorus was significantly interrelated with Down’s syndrome status (β = 0.478; p < 0.001). Principal component analysis (PCA) used As, Ca, Cr, Fe, Hg, I, Mg, P, Pb, Se, Si, Sn, and Zn as predictors, with the resulting R2 = 0.559. The OPLS-DA models also separated between Down’s and health control groups. Therefore, 1–2-year-old patients with Down’s syndrome are characterized by significant alterations of mineral and trace element status.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the interaction between environmental (water and soil) levels of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead levels, as well as their content in Hereford beef cattle tissues in five districts (D1—western area, D2 and D3—central area, D4 and D5—eastern area) of the Orenburg region. Soil metal levels were assessed using atomic emission spectrometry, whereas water and tissue (liver, kidney, muscle, heart) metal content was studied using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The obtained data demonstrate that the highest levels Zn in soil and water (p < 0.001), as well as cattle muscle, liver, and kidney (p < 0.05) were observed in D4 and D5 (eastern area), exceeding the maximum permissible concentration levels (MPCL) for drinking water and muscle for all regions. Similar associations were found for Cu levels. The highest soil and water Cd and Pb content were observed in D2 (central area) and D5 (eastern area), respectively. At the same time, cattle tissue Cd and Pb content did not correspond to the respective environmental levels. Correlation analysis demonstrated that water and soil Zn and Cu content directly correlated with muscle, liver, and kidney, but not heart metal content. At the same time, water Cd levels were negatively interrelated with muscle cadmium content but correlated directly with hepatic metal content. Both water and soil Pb levels positively correlated with renal metal levels in cattle. In turn, soil lead content was inversely associated with muscle metal levels. Regression analysis also demonstrated a significant association between environmental and tissue levels of Zn and Cu. The models adjusted for all studied elements demonstrated a significant effect of metal interaction on tissue metal levels. Hypothetically, excessive environmental Zn, and possibly Cu, levels may affect the uptake of heavy metals including Cd and Pb from the environment.
Assessment of the influence of prediabetes on serum trace element and electrolytelevels in postmenopausal women. A total of 80 prediabetic and 80 healthy postmenopausal women took part in the present study. Serum was analyzed for glucose, insulin, insulin resistance index(HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were also assessed. Serum levels of 28 elements were estimated using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry with dynamic reaction cell technology (ICP-DRC-MS). Prediabetic women were characterized by significantly higher HbA1c, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, ALT, and GGT values. Of trace elements, only serum zinc (Zn) levels were significantly lower in prediabetics by 10% (p = 0.001) when compared to the controls. Serum Zn levels were characterized by a significant inverse correlation with HbA1c (r = − 0.205; p = 0.009), insulin (r = − 0.246; p = 0.002), and HOMA-IR (r = − 0.227; p = 0.004). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated a significant inverse association between serum Zn (β = −0.169; p = 0.031) and Sr (β = −0.192; p = 0.012) and HOMA-IR values after adjustment for anthropometric and biochemical parameters (p for a model < 0.001). Although serum Zn was significantly associated with HbA1c both in crude and adjusted models, no significant relationship was detected after adjustment for age and anthropometric parameters. Prediabetic postmenopausal women are characterized by significantly lower levels of serum Zn concentration, whereas serum Zn and Sr levels were inversely associated with insulin resistance.
Children growth and development may be affected by metal exposure. The objective of the present study was to investigate the interactive effects of age and gender on children hair toxic metal levels in urban environment of two Russian cities. A total of 2021 children living in Moscow and Novosibirsk aged 1–18 years old were examined. Hair Al, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb and Sn levels were assessed using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry in dynamic reaction cell mode. Children from Novosibirsk were characterised by higher hair Al (37%), As (385%), Cd (127%), Hg (11%), Ni (23%), Pb (72%) and Sn (25%) in comparison to Moscow values. In the general cohort, boys had higher Al (13%), As (51%), Cd (65%), Pb (63%) and Sn (18%) levels, whereas hair Ni was higher in girls (17%). Further analysis demonstrated age-specific gender differences. In particular, only hair Ni and Cd levels were higher in male toddlers and pre-schoolers from Novosibirsk as compared to females. No gender difference was detected in Moscow. Maximal gender differences in hair metal levels were detected in adolescents for both locations. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) reference values for all groups were also calculated. The overall reference limits for the studied children population were Al (1.335–3.340 µg/g), As (0.021–0.384 µg/g), Cd (0.000–1.389 µg/g), Hg (0.024–0.722 µg/g), Ni (0.076–0.701 µg/g), Pb (0.050–1.490 µg/g) and Sn (0.070–1.026 µg/g). Two-way ANOVA demonstrated significant effects of age, gender and age*gender interaction on hair metals in both cities. At the same time, the age-specific changes in hair metal content were more expressed in children from Novosibirsk, being exposed to higher metal pollution. The obtained data demonstrate that age, gender as well as the particular rate of pollution in each location should be taken into account during interpretation of hair test results.
The chelating thiols dimercaptosuccinate (DMSA) and dimercaptopropane sulfonate (DMPS) are effective in enhancing urinary excretion of mercury and lead. However, strategies for mobilization of toxic metals from aged brain deposits may require combined use of a water soluble agent, removing circulating metal into urine, as well as lipophilic chelator, being used to facilitate the brain-to-blood mobilization. Pb(II) and Hg(II) ions are coordinated with DMSA through one COOH and one SH group. However Pb(II) can bind with racemic DMSA through two SH groups in non-aqueous solvents (when COOH groups are esterified). Generally, such Pb(II) and Hg(II) complexes have a composition of 1:1 and 1:2. However, binuclear and polynuclear species with DMSA like 2:1, 2:2, 2:3, 3:3 have been identified for Hg(II) ions. Both Pb(II) and Hg(II) ions are formed with BAL 1:1 and 1:2 complexes with coordination through two mercapto groups. Early experiments showed promising results with the SH–dextran–British anti-lewisite (BAL) combination. Later insight indicates that the DMPS–BAL could be preferred in cases of long-term Hg exposure. In cases of lead poisoning DMSA has been the recommended antidote due to its low toxicity. However, DMSA is distributed extracellularly, and its efficacy might be improved when combined with a brain-to-blood shuttling agent. Thus it has been found that the ionophore Monensin can improve its effect by increasing the egress of intracellularly deposited Pb. Previously, BAL was combined with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in severe cases. Today, it is reasonable that low-dosed BAL can facilitate mobilization of Pb from brain to blood during DMSA-treatment.
Multiple studies have shown an association between environmental exposure to hazardous chemicals including toxic metals and obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. At the same time, the existing data on the impact of cadmium exposure on obesity and diabetes are contradictory. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to review the impact of cadmium exposure and status on the risk and potential etiologic mechanisms of obesity and diabetes. In addition, since an effect of cadmium exposure on incidence of diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance was suggested by several epidemiologic studies, we carried out a meta-analysis of all studies assessing risk of prevalence and incidence of diabetes. By comparing the highest versus the lowest cadmium exposure category, we found a high risk of diabetes incidence (odds ratio = 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.71), which was higher for studies using urine as exposure assessment. On the converse, results of epidemiologic studies linking cadmium exposure and overweight or obesity are far less consistent and even conflicting, also depending on differences in exposure levels and the specific marker of exposure (blood, urine, hair, nails). In turn, laboratory studies demonstrated that cadmium adversely affects adipose tissuephysiopathology through several mechanisms, thus contributing to increased insulin resistance and enhancing diabetes. However, intimate biological mechanisms linking Cd exposure with obesity and diabetes are still to be adequately investigated.
The objective of the study was to investigate hair trace elements content in children suffering from autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A total of 74 ASD children and 74 sex- and age-matched controls divided into two age groups (2–4 and 5–9 years) were investigated. Hair trace elements content was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A general cohort of ASD children was characterized by 29 %, 41 %, and 24 % lower hair levels of chromium (Cr), iodine (I), and vanadium (V), respectively, whereas the level of selenium (Se) exceeded the respective control values by 31 %. In ASD children aged 2–4 years hair Cr, I and V content was 68 %, 36 % and 41 % lower than in the controls. Older ASD children were characterized by 45 % increase in hair Se levels. In a general cohort of ASD children hair beryllium (Be) and tin (Sn) levels were 50 % and 34 % lower than the control values. In the first age group (2–4 years) of ASD children 34 %, 42 %, and 73 % lower levels of arsenic (As), boron (B), and Be were detected. In the second age group of ASD children only a nearly significant 25 % decrease in hair lead (Pb) was detected. Surprisingly, no significant group difference in hair mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) content was detected. Generally, the results of the present study demonstrate that children with ASD are characterized by lower values in hair of not only essential but also toxic trace elements.
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a hazardous environmental pollutant, which elicits significant toxicity in humans. The accumulation of MeHg through the daily consumption of large predatory fish poses potential health risks, and the central nervous system (CNS) is the primary target of toxicity. Despite well-described neurobehavioral effects (i.e., motor impairment), the mechanisms of MeHg-induced toxicity are not completely understood. However, several lines of evidence point out the oxidative stress as an important molecular mechanism in MeHg-induced intoxication. Indeed, MeHg is a soft electrophile that preferentially interacts with nucleophilic groups (mainly thiols and selenols) from proteins and low-molecular-weight molecules. Such interaction contributes to the occurrence of oxidative stress, which can produce damage by several interacting mechanisms, impairing the function of various molecules (i.e., proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids), potentially resulting in modulation of different cellular signal transduction pathways. This review summarizes the general aspects regarding the interaction between MeHg with regulators of the antioxidant response system that are rich in thiol and selenol groups such as glutathione (GSH), and the selenoenzymes thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx). A particular attention is directed towards the role of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and the nuclear transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in MeHg-induced redox imbalance.
Mercury (Hg) is an environmental toxicant being present in the environment as elemental Hg (Hg0), inorganic and organic Hg compounds. The nervous system is supposed to be the key target for Hg toxicity. Research indicates that selenium (Se) may be used as a protective agent against Hg neurotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine new implications of the molecular biology of Hg neurotoxicity, and specifically to focus on the influence of Se compounds and interfering thiols on Hg neurotoxicity at the molecular level. Mercury and Se form stable coordination compounds, and Hg species are characterized by higher affinity to selenol groups as compared to thiol groups. Therefore, Se-containing molecules are targets for Hg binding that may at least partially mediate the biological outcome of Hg-Se interaction. Molecular interaction between these elements also involves mutual interaction between Hg and various selenoproteins. Experimental data demonstrate that Se treatment modifies brain Hg retention, modulates neurotoxicity and oxidative stress in the nervous tissue of animals. Human data also indicate that molecular interaction between Hg and Se may have a significant influence on neurodevelopment, brain functioning, and neurodegeneration. It is hypothesized that the effectiveness of Se protection against Hg neurotoxicity may be determined by the dose of elements as well as their particular chemical forms. Further studies are required to estimate the intimate mechanisms of Hg and Se interaction in vivo.
A significant interrelation between heavy metal exposure and metabolic syndrome (MetS) development has been demonstrated earlier. Despite the presence of a number of works aimed at the investigation of the role of Hg in MetS development, the existing data remain contradictory. Therefore, the primary objective of the current work is to review the existing data regarding the influence of mercury on universal mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the development of MetS and its components. The brief chemical characterization of mercury is provided. The role of mercury in induction of oxidative stress has been discussed. In particular, Hg-induced oxidative stress may occur due to both prooxidant action of the metal and decrease in antioxidant enzymes. Despite the absence of direct indications, it can be proposed that mercury may induce endoplasmic reticulum stress. As it is seen from both in vivo and in vitro studies, mercury is capable of inducing inflammation. The reviewed data demonstrate that mercury affects universal pathogenetic mechanisms of MetS development. Moreover, multiple investigations have indicated the role of mercury in pathogenesis of MetS components: dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and obesity to a lesser extent. The present state of data regarding the interrelation between mercury and MetS denotes the following perspectives: (1) Further clinic-epidemiologic and experimental studies are required to estimate the association between mercury exposure and the development of MetS components, especially obesity; (2) Additional investigations of the possible effect of organism’s mercury content modulation on MetS pathogenesis should be undertaken.
A total of 5908 occupationally non-exposed adults (4384 women and 1524 men) living in Moscow and Moscow region were involved in the current investigation. Hair Al, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Hg, Li, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Sr content was estimated by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry using NexION 300D. Men are characterized by significantly higher hair Al, As, Cd, Hg, Li, and Pb content. At the same time, hair levels of Bi, Ni, Sn, and Sr were significantly higher in women. Consequently, the reference ranges were estimated for male, female, and general cohort as coverage intervals in accordance with IUPAC recommendations.