Graduated from the Faculty of History and Philology of P. Lumumba Peoples’ Friendship University (now - RUDN University). 

1989 - 1992

Postgraduate student at the Department of History of Philosophy of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia.


Candidate thesis on “The problem of the spiritual in Western and Eastern culture and philosophy” was defended. The degree of Candidate of Philosophical Sciences was awarded. He became a senior lecturer at the Department of History of Philosophy at Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia.

1998 - present

Member of the editorial board of the journal “Vestnik RUDN”, series “Philosophy”.


Doctoral thesis on “The Metaphysics of Faith in Russian Philosophy” was defended. The degree of Doctor of Philosophy was awarded.

2004 - present

Secretary of the Russian Philosophical Society at RUDN University.


The title of Professor at the Department of History of Philosophy, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, RUDN University was awarded.

2012 - present

Member of the editorial board of the journal “Studia Philosophica Kantiana” (the journal is included in the Web of Science database, University of Presov, Slovakia).

2014 - present

Deputy Editor-in-chief of the journal “Space and Time” (the journal is included in the database of the RSCI and Google Scholar).

2015 - present

Member of the specialized councils for the defense of candidate and doctoral theses in Philosophical Sciences at RUDN University and Russian State University for the Humanities (RSUH), in Political Sciences at RUDN University.

2016 - 2019

Expert of the Council for Philosophy, Sociology and Cultural Studies of the HAC of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.


Reads to students of the bachelor’s and master’s programme and postgraduate students of RUDN University, directions “Philosophy”, “Regional Studies”, “Philology”, “Philosophy, Ethics, Regional studies”, “Political Science and Comparative Studies” the following courses:

  • “History of Ancient Philosophy”;
  • “German Classical Philosophy”;
  • “History of Russian Philosophy”;
  • “Philosophy”;
  • “Problems of Modern Philosophy”;
  • “Imyaslavye in the History of Russian Philosophy”;
  • “The problematic composition of Russian Philosophy and the trends of modern development”;
  • “The historical and philosophical concept of A. F. Losev”;
  • “History and Philosophy of Science”;
  • “Philosophy”;
  • “History and Philosophy of Science”.

Developed author’s special courses and special seminars for RUDN students of the bachelor’s and master’s programme, specialty “Philosophy” and “Philology”:

  • “Archetypes of philosophical cultures of the East and West”,
  • “Philosophy of language and name in Russia”,
  • “Problems of Metaphysics in Russian Philosophy”,
  • “Platonism in Russian Philosophy”,
  • “Kant’s Philosophy in Russian Thought”,
  • “Political Philosophy in Russia of XIX-XX centuries”,
  • “Metaphysics in M. Heidegger’s works”,
  • “M. Heidegger: “Plato’s Doctrine of Truth”,
  • “Hegel’s Philosophy of Religion”,
  • “Problems of Modern Philosophy: philosophical comparative studies”.

The author of monographs:

  1. Nizhnikov S. A., Lagunov A. A. Marxism: lessons of history and prospects // The creative heritage of Karl Marx and modern philosophy: monograph / preface. and ed. by T. M. Mahamatov. - M.: INFRA-M, 2019. p. 5-14. 199 p. (Scientific thought).
    The collective monograph was prepared by the participants of the interuniversity scientific and practical conference dedicated to the 200th anniversary of the birth of Karl Marx. In the chapters, the authors critically comprehend the theoretical legacy of the great thinker of the XIX century. The view of the philosophical ideas of the founder of Marxism is carried out through the prism of the historical fate and current problems of modern Russia. The problems of adequate understanding of the creative heritage of Karl Marx, as well as the heuristic significance in understanding the contradictions of the globalizing world, are raised. For lecturers of philosophy, social sciences and humanities, postgraduates, masters, bachelors and anyone interested in the problems of social and philosophical ideas of Karl Marx.
  2. Nizhnikov S. A. Russian metaphysical thought about the search for Individual Existence // Acta Moralia Tyrnaviensia VIII Obraz človeka v sociálnych vedách. Autor: Katarína Mária Vadíková, Peter Rusnák (eds.) Vydavateľstvo: Filozofická fakulta Trnavskej univeszity. Slovakia, 2018. P. 18-26.
    This study basing on the material of Russian philosophy and culture, reveals the ideological and spiritual significance of the search for the meaning of life as the most important characteristic of spiritual knowledge. The connection between the worldview and the meaning of life and its philosophical variants are understood as: transcendental, immanent and pantheistic. Faith is defined as a metaphysical basis for the meaning of life, necessary for building a holistic worldview. The conclusion is formulated that a person who seeks meaning and spiritually develops within himself the spiritual archetype of humanity, the peaks of which are Truth, Goodness and Beauty, united by Love.
  3. Nizhnikov S. A. Philosophy of Russian Unity in the Understanding of Slovak and Russian Historians of Philosophy. Transformation of the Value paradigm in Russian Philosophy: experience of Russian-Slovak Understanding. Collective monograph / Edited by T. N. Seregina, E. Greg, Z. Plashienkov, A. Denikin, and others / Kazan: Print-Service-XXI century, 2018. pp. 19-32. 210 p.
    The collective monograph reveals the picture of the value orientations of the Russian society in the experience of understanding of Russian philosophers. This work is one of the first to examine the genesis of traditional values in the history of Russian philosophy and the guidelines of Russian society in its development. The analysis allows us to determine the possibilities of modern society for the assimilation of new values and the preservation of traditional ones, as well as their transformation in the modern global world.
    The book contains the results of research by leading Russian scientists. The monograph includes works by well-known foreign scientists dealing with the problems of the history, formation and development of Russian philosophy.
    The book is addressed to both specialists and a wide range of readers interested in the philosophy and cultural processes of modern Russia. It can be used by lecturers in the educational process, as well as by postgraduate students and students when writing scientific and creative works.
  4. Nizhnikov S. A., Гребешев И.В. L.P. Krasavin’s Historiosophical Personalism: origins and influences // Acta Moralia Tyrnaviensia VIII Obraz človeka v sociálnych vedách. Autor: Katarína Mária Vadíková, Peter Rusnák (eds.) Vydavateľstvo: Filozofická fakulta Trnavskej univeszity. Slovakia, 2018. Ss. 27-38. 204 c.
    An interesting from the point of view of composition, an interdisciplinary view of the image of a person in society through the prism of art, the media, moral theology, political science, political and social philosophy and ethics, largely corresponds to the ideas of L.P. Karsavin, N.A. Berdyev, J. Maritain, B. Fay, P. Florensky, E. Levinas, J. Patochka, J. Cassian, Aristotle and numerous modern critics of materialistic concepts of the person image. This is defined by carefully selected problems of modern society such as: human dehumanization in the media; questions of the art of life, the omnipotence of mankind, the fight against anger; the issue of responsibility, the problematic nature of the political system and models of freedom; political science as a science and as an auxiliary discipline; difficulties of self-identification under the pressure of global deculturation and the culture of emotivism; taking care of a person in a social work environment.
  5. Nizhnikov S. A. Russian philosophy abroad: history and modernity // Collective Monograph. M.: KNORUS, 2017. Ch. 7 (in co-author) “Russian philosophy in the countries of Eastern Europe” (pp. 164-178); ch. 26, 27 “A. Schmemann” (pp. 265-272), “Tomas Spidlik” (pp. 273-278). 448 p.
    The monograph is devoted to a comprehensive study of foreign philosophical Russian studies in its history and current state. The main concepts and intellectual portraits of the most famous specialists in Russian thought from the USA, Great Britain, France, Germany, Poland, Italy, China and other countries are presented and analyzed. The book also includes original texts by foreign authors that demonstrate the possibility and necessity of creative dialogue with foreign researchers.
  6. Nizhnikov S. A. Morale and politics in the context of spiritual and intellectual traditions. Monograph. Moscow: INFRA-M, 2015.
    In the study, through the prism of N. Machiavelli’s work, possible variants of the relationship between morality and politics are identified, among which: Machiavelli himself (only a good political goal justifies any means), Machiavellian (the goal justifies any means) and humanistic (a good goal can be achieved only by good methods). The fundamental difference between these variants of understanding the relationship between politics and morality is established, and it is noted that the Machiavellian variant cannot be called politics at all, since such activities are highly criminal. It is argued that the solution of modern global, both international and domestic problems is possible only on the basis of a humanistic policy, the principles of which were discovered in the “axial time” by world religions and philosophy, developed by I. Kant, F. Dostoevsky, L. Tolstoy, Mahatma Gandhi, M. L. King, etc. I. Ilyin’s polemic with the doctrine of “non-resistance to evil by force” is revealed in detail. The role of the intelligentsia in Russian society is analyzed.
  7. Nizhnikov S. A. Immanuel Kant’s creativity in the dialogue between cultures of Russia and the West: Monograph / S. A. Nizhnikov - M.: Political Encyclopedia, 2015. 255 p.
    The paper presents a detailed comprehensive analysis of the perception of I. Kant’s philosophy, primarily in Russian metaphysical thought, in its historical development and problem composition. At the same time, attention is focused on the understanding and attitude of Russian philosophers to Kant’s work from the point of view of the metaphysics of faith as one of the central trends in Russian philosophy, the construction of which is considered by the author as a super-task that faced Russian thought. It reveals both criticism and assimilation, and the dependence of philosophy in Russia on Kant’s transcendental constructions. The book can be useful and interesting to all students of the history of Russian philosophy and culture.
  8. Nizhnikov S. A. Correlation of faith and science as an actual problem of modernity // Orthodoxy and modernity: problems of secularism and post-secularism: a collective monograph. - Moscow: Novospassky Monastery Publishing House, 2015.
    The collective monograph is a collection of texts devoted to the description and analysis of various aspects of both secularism and post-secularism, as well as the philosophical understanding of religion and religiosity in a variety of spiritual practices in the historical, philological, confessional and “virtual” dimensions, introducing readers to the world of dialogue and conflicts between outstanding “symbolizations of the mysterious”.
    The monograph is intended for all those who professionally study the problems of understanding religion and secularism in global and local contexts, for postgraduate students and students of the fields of “Religious Studies”, “Theology”, “Philosophy”, etc. of higher educational institutions, as well as all those who are interested in the “eternal questions” of the relationship between man and the universe, engaged in self-education in this field of academic creativity.


  • Defined the essential features of spiritual knowledge in the cultures of the West and the East as the basis for mutual understanding and dialogue.
  • Described the specifics of the phenomenon of faith, introducing the concepts of metaphysics and ontology of faith.
  • Studied the influence of German classical philosophy on the work of Russian thinkers.
  • Essentially analyzed the relationship between morality and politics in the context of intellectual and spiritual traditions.
  • Studied the “doctrinal limits” of Eurasian teaching and identified the conceptual foundations of the philosophy of Eurasianism.
  • Studied F. M. Dostoevsky’s works, in the categories of the correlation of the national and the universal in the structure of philosophical thought in Russia.
  • Comprehensively analyzed the perception of I. Kant’s philosophy in Russia in its historical development and problem composition. Considered the most important aspects of Russian metaphysics, such as ontological, epistemological and anthropological, and established their dependence (continuity and criticism) on I. Kant’s transcendental philosophy.
  • Defined the experience of studying modern teaching and research of Russian philosophy in other cultures as the most important component of modern humanitarianism. Studied a little-studied period in the development of philosophical Russian studies abroad (the second half of the XX - the beginning of the XXI centuries) in revealing its continuity with the philosophy of the Russian post-October abroad.
  • Studied the role of religion as a factor of stability in modern Russia, as well as the development of interfaith dialogue in the country and in the world.
  • Defined the “philosophy of man” as a problem of interdisciplinary research.

Scientific interests

  • German Philosophy in Russia,
  • spiritual knowledge in the cultures of the East and West,
  • metaphysics and ontology of faith,
  • transcendent-existential dimension of human existence,
  • essence of man and his self-knowledge,
  • political philosophy, morality, and politics.
The article analyzes the forming of dialectic method by Aleksei Losev through the prism of critics of Edmund Husserl’s phenomenology that claims to be universal. On the whole, the Russian thinker iden-tifies and phasedly analyzes three methods: the phenomenological, transcendental, and dialectical. He considers the latter as complete and holistic, including the previous ones as its steps. He uses a platonic understanding of eidos and the interpretation of dialectics, apparently trying to avoid the Hegelian formalism. On the one hand, Losev accepts the significance of Husserl’s phenomenological method as basic, on the other he does not agree to remain on it, dialectically interpreting the concept of eidos. It is noted that Heidegger went through analogous evolution (Losev – logically, Heidegger – historically (biographically)) moving from phenomenology to fundamental ontology and hermeneutics. The transformation of phenomenology into a comprehensive method covering various sciences, including philosophical anthropology, is noted today. Losev also applies dialectics both to the interpretation of Christian dogma and to the analysis of the hesychast spiritual experience, and addresses the problems of philosophical anthropology.
The article analyzes the correlation between theology and philosophy and discusses the fundamental possibility of creating Christian philosophy. Historical and experimental theoretical grounds for the possibility of developing Christian philosophy within the framework of Catholicism, Protestantism, and Orthodoxy are consistently analyzed. On the basis of the historical and philosophical analogy, the authors trace the origin of those positions and approaches that have received their detailed substantiation and justification for the relationship with philosophy within these confessions. The problems on the way to the creation of Christian philosophy are revealed. The role of Christian philosophy in Catholicism is examined on the basis of the Thomist concept of the coexistence of theology and philosophy. The approach to the building of Christian philosophy from the standpoint of Protestantism is represented both by its radical branch and by its alternative “cultural Protestantism”. As the specific characteristics of the Eastern Christian knowledge of God the unity of the contemplative and activity-based path, spiritual cognition and theology are singled out. The importance for Orthodox thought of the apophatic way of cognition, the apophatics of the individual instead of the apothatics of the essence is emphasized (G. Palamas, V. Lossky, D. Stăniloae). In the final statements, the authors come to the conclusion of the possibility of Christian philosophy in the Orthodox version, which is the possibility coordinated with Christian dogmatics, an experience of its living, and therefore reasonable comprehension.
The article analyzes the fundamental difference between the “sciences of nature” and the “sciences of the spirit” revealed in Neo-Kantianism both in the subject and in the method. Whereas the “sciences of nature” tend to cognize the truth, the “sciences of the spirit” are meant to comprehend and create values; while the former use mathematics as the universal method of cognition, the latter apply hermeneutics as the art of comprehending other spiritual worlds. The complexity of the sciences of the spirit, their experimental nonverifiability, evaluativity, and moral concern are highlighted. The concept of freedom which appears in social and humanitarian knowledge and the presence of which makes both the behavior of a creative personality and the development of society unpredictable is particularly distinguished.
The authors of the article consider the duality of a human being and his relationship with culture. Based on the historical and philosophical material, the authors come to the conclusion that man is a biological being by nature and a socio-spiritual, i.e. cultural, being by essence. At the same time, the emphasis is made on the importance of social interactions that beget an individual as homo sapience. Culture, man, society are being formed in the process of spiritual comprehension, a transcendence of existence (M. Heidegger, M. Mamardashvili), resting on religious symbols, metaphysical concepts, and creativity in art. In this regard, the definition of man as a biosocial being seems to be insufficient, for he is a socio-cultural, spiritual entity. There is no one outside culture and society in the foundation of which is the symbol-making activity of consciousness (Ernst Cassirer and M. Mamardashvili).
The author investigates possible variants of the correlation between violence and nonviolence in politics. He bases on the scrupulous perusal of primary sources, and aspires to place accents on the concept of a humanistic policy. He asserts that the decision of modern global international and internal problems can be reached only on the basis on a humanistic policy of non-violence: nonresistance to the evil by violence that does not except, but sometimes need resistance to the evil by force. Principles of humanistic policy were opened in “axial time” by world religions and philosophy, advanced by Immanuel Kant, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, etc.
The article consistently examines the issues of the influence of Kantian philosophy on the development of philosophical schools and trends in Russia, the interrelations between Russian culture and the so-called “Silver Age” with the preferences related to religious problematics in the studies by Russian thinkers, and the special relevance of the problem of the correlation between faith and knowledge for the representatives of Russian Neo-Kantianism.
The author of the article reviews the main aspects of Immanuel Kant’s philosophy of morality, education, and upbringing, which formed the European model of education in the 19th – 20th centuries. The paper traces Kant’s path to the moral interpretation of the spirituality as a truly universal interpretation, as opposed to the formerly used spiritualist one. The author treats transcendental philosophy as a possible basis for the development of the future model of education, in which it aims to rise above the particularism of metaphysical systems and traditional worldviews. This, according to the author, is its universal humanitarian crosscultural potential that can be used in the education of the subjects of the contemporary world, aimed at finding common spiritual and moral grounds.
The study "Socio-ethical ideas in modern Russian philosophy in the context of the Slavic world" tries to answer the question, which ideas resonate most in modern Russian philosophy? This question is answered by a team of fourteen authors from Russia, Slovakia, Poland and the Czech Republic - participants in an international scientific conference (held on May 5, 2015 at the Faculty of Arts of the Trnava University in Trnava), which was part of a research grant project (VEGA No. 1/0061 / 14 "Socio-ethical motives in modern Russian philosophy"), thanks to the research we set ourselves the task of opening new horizons of the topic. All invited lecturers, by virtue of their competence in the field of Russian philosophy, show that Russian ideas are still alive in the Slavic world even today, despite the fact that each of the lecturers considered these ideas “in their own way”. However, this intellectual and centuries-old diversity is not only useful, but also beautiful, because it reflects something unique, specific, and at the same time seeks what unites everyone - the characteristic Slavic ideas: humanity, wisdom and disagreement in matters of truth. In an introductory speech, in three languages (Russian, Slovak and English), we would like to briefly touch on the ideas that have remained in our memory.

Information about the defended postgraduate students

Evgeniya Buzhor
Country: Russia
Year of protection: 2017
Research topic: The Philosophy of Transforming Knowledge of P. Florensky and Vyach. Ivanov in the Context of the Theory of All-Unity by Vl. Solovyov
Annotation to the dissertation: The research deals with comparative analysis of the types of transforming (theurgic) human activities aimed at the consolidation of the empirical and noumenal reality in the works of Russian philosophers, Vladimir Solovyov, Pavel Florensky and Russian poet-symbolist, Vyacheslav Ivanov. As a theoretical framework for the research was taken Solovyov’s concept of All-Unity. The analysis of the conceptual foundations of All-unity identified one of its main theoretical subjects as the dialectical identity and difference between the empirical and noumenal worlds and the resulting pragmatism of their reintegration, called Theurgy. I contend that the mentioned thinkers considered the Theurgy as the transformation of the empirical reality and its reintegration into the world of All-Unity being not only the essence of the global development of the world as a whole, but the meaningful and vital task of every individual. I research and analyze the specific forms of individual Theurgy available to man: love and art at Vl. Solovyov, a genuine process of knowledge of reality at P. Florensky, a process of self-discovery and creation of a new type of society at Vyach. Ivanov.

Maria Ivanova
Country: Russia
Year of protection: 2017
Research topic: Indian philosophy, archetype, Aurobindo Ghosh, “The Secret of the Veda”, the Rigveda, the Upanishads, Carl Jung, philosophical comparative studies
Annotation to the dissertation: The thesis is devoted to philosophical study of the concept of archetype as a part of the cultural heritage of humanity. It describes the evolution of the concepts of the archetype and philosophical approaches to this phenomenon. The conclusion is made about the heuristic potential of the archetypal reality for the evolution of consciousness of a person, which requires extension of the methodology of the study of archetypes, and the synthesis of Eastern and Western philosophical ideas on the nature of archetypes. In the thesis there is given the analysis of universality, specificity and uniqueness of archetypal images and symbols of Russian culture. The author distinguishes the most significant archetypes for the development of consciousness of the individual.

Duong Quoc Quan
Country: Vietnam
Year of protection: 2014
Research topic: Confucianism in medieval Vietnam
Annotation to the dissertation: Confucianism - began spreading due to military expansion, it was gradually adapted to local conditions and has acquired a dominant role in the ideological system of governance of the country, it became one of the ideological sources of the philosophy and culture of Vietnam. The thesis formed the conclusion that the moral and ethical content of Confucianism in Vietnam rethinks the medieval; this represented a new paradigm that is significantly different from the previous china. It mostly discusses the "loyalty", "filial piety", "obligation", and rarely - the problem of discharge of metaphysics and abstract concepts. For Vietnamese, patriotism was the main moral values that define the process of perception of Confucianism, its assimilation and adaptation. The development of Confucian doctrine in Vietnam has not resulted in any new schools, prominent scientist nor extensional theoretical works; the increasing focus on the issues of pragmatic was of much the eclectic nature. The role of Confucianism extent spread and impact, whether positive or negative identified the needs and challenges of historical development. His principles still exist today in all social relations in behavior between people. In order to successfully develop and modernize the country, Vietnam should abandon that which hinders the development of Confucianism and encourage that which helps to build progressive social and economic relations.