Geology and Mining Engineering
Technologies for underground construction of oil, gas and toxic production wastes in saline deposits
The universality of underground storages in sediments of rocksalt lies in the possibility of storing gas, oil and condensate in them, as well as the products of their processing. Underground natural gas storage facilities are used to regulate the unevenness of gas consumption, primarily to cover peak loads in conditions of strong and extreme fall of temperature. An important role is given to the creation of underground reservoirs in rocksalt for the collection of gas-condensate raw materials, the preparation of gas for transportation, the burial of production wastes, the field preparation of oil and gas, and the purging of gas wells. In addition to the tasks of collecting and storing hydrocarbons, underground reservoirs are supposed to be used for technological purposes: for inertial-gravity separation of gas-condensate mixtures and watered liquid hydrocarbons, i.e. field preparation for separate transportation of extracted raw materials. The main goal of the development and implementation of underground construction of oil, gas and toxic waste storages is to substantiate the technical and technological parameters and characteristics during the construction and operation of underground tanks in saline deposits for storing hydrocarbons and toxic wastes, thus solving a number of tasks of developing technologies and technical means of construction and operation of underground storage facilities for gas and oil products and the dumping of industrial waste in rocksalt and other sustainable rocks, including permafrost ones; design of underground gas storage facilities, oil and their derivative products; geological and hydrogeological research to assess the suitability of the territory for the construction of all types of underground storage facilities; development of programs for calculating sustainable shapes and sizes of underground tanks; geomechanical ensuring the sustainability of production wells and underground key seats-tanks in difficult geological conditions during underground storage and production of gas and oil products; developing programs for calculating the technological parameters of the construction and operation of underground storage facilities.
Prospecting and exploration of unconventional sources of hydrocarbons (coalbed methane, shale gas and oil, matrix oil, gas hydrates)
The progress achieved in the world in the production of oil and gas raw materials allows the development of unconventional types and sources of hydrocarbons (coalbed methane, shale gas and oil, matrix oil, gas hydrates) with a cost equal to the cost of raw materials on the world market. At the same time, one of the most important tasks of subsoil use is the economic assessment and selection of optimal technologies for the extraction and processing of unconventional hydrocarbons, which defines the objective of this direction as the rationale for the development directions of the mineral resource base and technologies for developing unconventional sources of hydrocarbon raw materials. The goal can be achieved by solving the following main tasks: the development of forecast scenarios for the development of the mineral resource base, taking into account traditional and alternative sources of hydrocarbons; justification criteria for the efficiency of production of hydrocarbons; improvement of methods for calculating stocks of unconventional sources of hydrocarbons; development of an assessment of the effectiveness of existing and promising technologies for the development of unconventional sources of hydrocarbons.
Technologies for applying remote sensing data from space to assess the oil and gas potential of regions and the search for oil and gas fields
The images obtained from space establish the presence of oil and gas structures, which have a great length, and features that would allow them to be found. The main trend of geological studies using space information is to construct special schemes and maps based on the differences in the tectonic development of large infolded structures, fault zones and spatial distribution of sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks. Analysis of the results of remote sensing of the Earth based on the use of geographic information systems reveals the role of gaps in the formation of infolded forms and their morphology. This provides the ability to predict the presence of mineral deposits. The main objective of the direction is the study of the geology of the Earth from space - the acquisition and processing of geological and geophysical information from automated spacecraft, artificial earth satellites (AES), manned spacecraft (MSC). Achieving this goal requires solving such tasks: creating a high-precision topographical basis for well-seismic ties, seismic profiles and infrastructure of the fields, as well as for multi-purpose tasks at all stages of geological exploration; study of the regional structure and areas of oil and gas accumulation for poorly studied areas; identification of fracture zones in carbonate reservoirs with high reservoir properties; detailed assessment of the engineering and geological conditions of the work site and identification of the prerequisites for natural disasters (floods, landslides, earthquakes, etc.).