Ecology and Environmental Management
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking and mineral waters
For the first time, a system of criteria for assessing the contamination of drinking and mineral ground waters with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), recognized as supertoxicants with a pronounced mutagenic effect, is being developed. Models of pollution assessment are being formed, the organization of monitoring water quality in terms of their pollution by PAHs, and proposals for the rehabilitation of the underground hydrosphere are being formulated. A system for assessing the genesis and manifestation of technogenesis of mineral and drinking water types known in Russia and abroad, as well as risk assessments of their use, is proposed. On the basis of analytical definitions, a list of popular drinking waters sold by the Russian trade network polluted by PAHs has been compiled and published.
Development of an expert system for the rehabilitation of the geological environment polluted with oil products
Development of the scientific and methodological basis of this expert system based on the principles of self-organization for the territory of the project countries in the unified information system of the CIS member states is aimed at solving the problem of improving the effectiveness of management decisions for the rehabilitation of the geological environment polluted by oil and oil products. As part of the study, criteria for the quality of the geological environment when contaminated with hydrocarbons (for the territory of the Russian Federation) are developed; a logical model and architecture of the expert system, as well as a database of sources of oil pollution and a knowledge base on the chemical composition of petroleum, are being formed.
Study of the genetic and biochemical basis for the regulation of cell death
The technogenic environment in which a person currently lives inevitably affects the processes occurring in one’s body, which in its turn affects the incidence and the state of human immunity, even if not exposed to significant concentrations of pollutants. In this direction, studies of biochemical processes in healthy and sick cells of the body are conducted. Studies are conducted on the mutual influence of the activity of enzymes that provoke cell death (apoptotic enzymes) and various processes, such as the formation in the body of various proteins based on a single gene (the process of alternative splicing), violation of metabolic processes (oxidative stress). The effect of electromagnetic radiation on biochemical processes in the body is investigated. Within this research, three projects are being developed, the results of which should be new methods for diagnosing cancer diseases and, in the long term, their treatment; development of new drugs for the treatment of Parkinson's disease; prevention of diseases of the cardiovascular system in astronauts during flights.
Development of scientific bases of regional monitoring systems for priority environmental pollutants taking into account natural and climatic conditions and modelling their impact on the biosphere
Pollution of the environment by chemicals of both organic and inorganic nature is one of the most genuine concerns caused by the increasing anthropogenic load on natural ecosystems. At the same time, the main natural depot for polluting substances in the environment is soil, which not only accumulates the components of pollution but also acts as a geomembrane that controls the transfer of chemical elements and compounds to the atmosphere, hydrosphere and living matter, including humans. Within this area, a number of topics are being developed: modelling the behaviour of toxic organic compounds at geochemical barriers, creating an expert system for modelling oil pollution of the geological environment, forecasting the impact of soil contamination with heavy metals on human health. The results of research in this area will contribute to the development of new environmental quality standards, the creation of environmental protection technologies, the assessment of the effectiveness and the adjustment of health protection measures.