An ischemic stroke can lead to death, disability, cerebral edema, alteration of consciousness, and other complications that considerably affect the quality of the patients’ lives. The method of selective cerebral hypothermia is used to treat cerebral edema and reduce intracranial pressure. According to RUDN medics, some treatment standards included into this method are incorrect.
In the course of selective cerebral hypothermia the brain cortex is cooled off causing the body’s activity to slow down and relieving the edema. This effect is reached using a special helmet with 0-8℃ liquid circulating inside it. The method also slows down the metabolism, and the patients need to make adjustments to their diets for the period of therapy. Previously, the patients were expected to get 20-25 Kcal per 1 kilogram of body weight. For an average weight person this means about 1,600 Kcal a day - two times less than it is required by healthy people. RUDN medics demonstrated that these values were incorrect. In fact, the amount of calories should be reduced by 15-20%.
The researchers divided 27 ischemic stroke patients from 53 to 80 years old into two groups. The first one was treated using the selective cerebral hypothermia method, and the other one - without it. All other therapy aspects were the same in both groups. The diet of the patients was developed in view of their energy consumption and daily protein loss. The first group showed positive dynamics 24 hours after the beginning of the treatment, and the second one - none at all. After the patients in the first group underwent selective cerebral hypothermia, all their health indicators went back to normal. As a result, the scientists demonstrated that standard dietary recommendations for such patients had little efficiency and recommended reducing the dosage by 15-20%.
“The neuroprotective effect of therapeutic hypothermia has already been acknowledged all over the world. However, we have to continue clinical studies and optimize the therapy. We provided new recommendations regarding calorie value reduction in case of hypothermia. Currently, they are only preliminary, but one may expect our method to reduce the morality and disablement rate in the patients with ischemic stroke,” said Oleg Shevelev, Professor of V.A. Frolov Department of General Pathology and Pathological Physiology at RUDN.
RUDN soil scientists have revealed a direct correlation between the rate of soil formation of carbon dioxide, called CO2 emissions, and the content of microbial biomass in it. It is known that CO2 emission from soil is mainly conditioned by respiration of soil microorganisms and plant roots. The more CO2 soil emits, the more microbial biomass it usually contains. It was shown that CO2 emission by chernozem of different ecosystems (or different types of land use) correlates with the content of microbial biomass, and most closely with the rate of its microbial respiration. And the soil with good microbial properties has the “best quality”, is more fertile, provides the highest yield of crops and other plant biomass.
A RUDN chemist has synthesized a catalyst for the production of gamma-valerolactone — an energy-intensive “green” biofuel. The catalyst based on zirconium dioxide and zeolite has shown high efficiency in converting the waste of wood plant materials — methyl levulinate — to gamma-valerolactone.
Biochemists from RUDN University determined which substances in peach leaves provide the antioxidant effect their extract has. They investigated the composition of the powders obtained from leaves of several varieties of peach and found that high polyphenol content correlates with antioxidant properties. The results will help start production of antioxidants from natural sources.